Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale

The CES-D measures the number, types, and duration of depressive symptoms. It consists of 20 questions that cover the six essential dimensions of depression as identified by the clinical research literature: 1) depressed mood, 2) feelings of guilt and worthlessness, 3) feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, 4) psychomotor retardation, 5) loss of appetite, and 6) sleep disturbance. The CES-D has shown good reliability for different ethnicities, genders, and age groups. However, it may be better to use the CES-D as a test of the severity and duration of depression rather than as a screening tool to identify the existence of depression. For this scale, please indicate how often you have felt or behaved in this particular way during the past week. The possible range of scores is zero to 60, with higher scores indicating greater depressive symptomatology.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). Center for epidemiological studies depression scale doi:
You are a male | female

In the last week... Rarely or none of the time (less than 1 day) Some of a little of the time (1-2 days) Occasionally - a moderate amount of time (3-4 days) Most or all of the time (5-7 days)
1. I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me.
2. I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor.
3. I could not shake off the blues even with help from my family or friends.
4. I felt I was just as good as other people.
5. I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing.
6. I felt depressed.
7. I felt that everything I did was an effort.
8. I felt hopeful about the future.
9. I thought my life had been a failure.
10. I felt fearful.
11. My sleep was restless.
12. I was happy.
13. I talked less than usual.
14. I felt lonely.
15. People were unfriendly.
16. I enjoyed life.
17. I had crying spells.
18. I felt sad.
19. I felt that people dislike me.
20. I could not get “going.”


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