A Snapshot of Prison Gangs and Youth Gangs in Canada: Well-known Gangs, Membership, Offences, Risk, and Reconviction
Like their American counterparts, prison gangs in Canada are numerous
and diverse, and at many times dispositionally related to the region
in which they operate. In the Prairie provinces, one of the largest
focus areas of Aboriginal criminal justice research today, Native
Canadian gangs (largely youth-composed) are rapidly increasing both
within prison and without. An estimated 250 Aboriginal incarcerated
youths are involved in prison gangs and up to 1,000 in Aboriginal
youth street gangs (Correctional Service Canada 2005). 5% of Canada's
14,000 federal inmates is part of a prison gang, with Aboriginal
inmates contributing a sizable portion. Furthermore, 80% of all
young male offenders aged 25 and younger are affiliated with a gang
(Correctional Service Canada 2002). According to the Calgary
Herald, 450 Aboriginal gang members serve time in prisons throughout
Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, with 113 of those on conditional
release, and 58 of those at a single institution, Drumheller.
One may argue that the rise of prison gangs in Canadian correctional
facilities has simply been the direct recoil of recent anti-gang
initiatives by law enforcement. As Correctional Services Canada
admit, the "increase in the admission of members and associates
of gangs and criminal organizations... can be attributed to the
government's introduction of legislation to combat organized crime
and to the success of the integrated approach of law adopted by
law enforcement." (http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/releases/04-06-25_e.shtml)
American influence on Canadian street and prison gangs results
in some gangs adopting American styles of dress, identification,
and organization. Death
Do Us Part, a Prairie prison gang that began in Edmonton Young
Offender Centre (E.Y.O.C) in 1994, changed their color from purple
to blue a year after their inception, to mark their supposed affiliation
with the Crips in Arizona and California. After changing their name
to the DDP Crips, they thereafter became known only as the Crips
in Alberta, a reputation that lasted until 1998.
Some of the reasons for many forms of Western Canadian gang deviance
surrounds the current state of many of Canada's Native Canadians.
Many of those who are young, poor, unemployed, discriminated against,
out of school, and suffering from addiction statistically become
natural candidates for membership in solidarity-focused, "cultural
advocacy" groups. The actual activities of many Aboriginal
youth gangs, however, like their American equivalents protesting
similar cultural- and age-oppressive environments, involve very
little of these supposed cultural goals. Instead, vandalism, auto
thefts, robberies and muggings remain the crimes of choice for many
youth gangs, who either prefer (or must accept) both less prestigious
and less inconspicuous operations than their organized-crime counterparts,
the Manitoba Warriors and the Hells
Angels, who prefer gun-smuggling, drug-trafficking, drug-dealing,
The gangs listed below are by no means an exhaustive list of the
possible organizations operating in prison and on the streets in
the Vancouver, the Prairies, the Greater Toronto Area, Ottawa, and
Montreal, but they are by far the majority, with the largest being
Warriors, the Native
Syndicate, the Indian
Posse, Redd Alert, the Hells Angels, the Crips,
the Bandidos, Shower Posse, White Aryan Resistance, (aka Aggravated Resistance),
and the Bloods.
In all cases, these gangs produce institutional instability, an
increase in transfers, and a spread of membership.
Specific Gangs Across Canada
- Aggravated Resistance / Aryan Resistance / White Aryan
Resistance - transnational gang, reported either in prison
or on the street across Alberta, and in Toronto and Montreal.
Restrictions were imposed on inmates of the Edmonton Remand
Centre in 2003 after a growing feud between Redd Alert and
- Crazy Dragons
- Crazy Dragon
Do Us Part
- East Side Crips (in Winnipeg, but known as the Dog City
Crips in Colorado Springs. According to user-sources, East
Side Crips are known as more of a street gang than a prison
gang in Winnipeg)
- Guerillas Of Death
- Hell's Angels
- Mixed Blood
- RTN - Repping The Northside, reported inside the Manitoba Youth Center, numbering between 20 and 50 members, according to users (see street gang list for more details)
- Saskatchewan Warriors
- Untamed Til Death UTD
- Zig Zag Crew
on the street:
- 3-2 Bloodset (based out of 32st in Edmonton Alberta in
the Abbottsfield area)
- 4 Duece Killers (Blood set out of Edmonton)
- Aggravated Resistance / Aryan Resistance / White Aryan
- African Mafia (Winnipeg)
- Alberta Warriors
- Boyz N Tha Hood (large street gang known in
Calgary, Alberta, in the early 1990's.)
- Brawlers (Brandon, Manitoba)
- B-Side (Winnipeg)
- Brothers and Bitches
- Cash Money Brothers
- Charleswood Priand
- Clareview Crips (Edmonton)
- Crazy Cree
- Crazy Dragons (Edmonton, Alberta)
- Crazy Dragon Killers (Edmonton, Alberta)
- Dakota Warriors Society - Brandon, Manitoba.
- Death Do Us Part
- Dirty Money Crew (DMC) - identified by Dirty Money tattoo
on the stomach, with a smoking gun and money. Main source
of income trafficking. Main colour is grey, with secondary
colours being white and black. Reported in small numbers
but frequently inside Winnipeg Remand Centre.
- Dirty South (Edmonton)
- DK'Z - according to user sources, there are over 300 in
Edmonton's Millwoods area
- Dynamic Crew - Winnipeg-based Blood set.
- Dream City, DC (Calgary, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat,
Alberta) - according to user sources, Dream City "are
known for drug trafficking of cociane in the area. They
are of different ethnic backgrounds. It is unknown the size
of the gang presently but they do seem to be growing in
- Eastside Crips (Winnipeg)
- East End Bandits
- EvR (Regina) - according to users, they wear burgundy/red,
are based in the Eastview area, are rivals with U.K., have
"evr" tatoos, and the motto "All of us or none of us." Relatively
small, about 20-30 members.
- Junior Mixed Blood (Saskatchewan)
- Fresh Off the Boat F.O.B (Calgary)
- Fresh Off the Boat Killers F.O.B.K (Calgary)
- Hell's Angels
- Insane Deathrow Gangsta Crips
- Indian Mafia Crips (Saskatchewan)
- Indian Soulja's (Saskatchewan)
- Jamaican Posse
- Kapital Ground Brotherhood
- Kids (Brooks, Alberta)
- Kingpin Bloods (Based out of Edmonton)
- Kingsway Bloods (Edmonton)
- Krazies (Winnipeg)
- Krazy Cambodian Killers (K.C.K) (Edmonton, Alberta)
- La Raza (Calgary)
- Lawndale 13
- LB Bloods
- Locolz (North End, Winnipeg, Manitoba)
- Los Montoneros (Manitoba)
- Loyalty Honour Silence (LHS) (Manitoba)
- Mad Cowz, a Winnipeg-based gang made up of mostly young
African immigrants, and which recently split into two factions,
one of which calls itself the African Mafia.
- Mafia Crips (MC's), Edmonton, Alberta
- Main Street Rattlers
- Manitoba Bloods
Salvatrucha 13 (MS-13) (Calgary)
- Markham Royalz
- Mixed Blood
- Native Crips (Hobema, Alberta)
- Native Kings
- Native Mob Family (Minnesota-based)
- Native Souljas/Mafia (Saskatchewan)
- Native Syndicate Killers (NSK)
- North End Brotherhood (Winnipeg-based)
- North End Jamaicans (Edmonton)
- North Central Rough Riderz (Saskatchewan)
- North Shore Bloods (Kamloops,British Columbia)
- North Side Jonsquad (Winnipeg)
- Nine-Os (Winnipeg-based)
- Northside (Edmonton)
- Notorious Bloods (Blood set out of Winnipeg)
- Overlords (Winnipeg-based)
- Oriental Killers
- Partners In Crime (PIC) (Calgary, Alberta) offshoot of
- Pretty Boy Mafia P.B.M (Edmonton)
- RTN - Repping The Northside - Winnipeg set based in North
End. Activities include robbery, membership-protection,
graffiti and trafficking of marijuana and psychedelics.
Members have a belief in a socialist ideaology that includes
only robbing the rich or police (called "Sir'z") and not
selling Hard Drugs in the Ghetto.
- Saskatchewan Warriors
- Sisters In Action (S.I.A.) Winnipeg-based female gang
responsible for the death of a 16-year old boy, in a botched
gang fight in the early 1990's.
- Soul Suvivaz (Winnipeg)
- Southside Boys (Edmonton)
- South Side Skulls
13 (Calgary, Alberta)
- Trang Gang (Edmonton)
- Tribal Warriors (Saskatchewan)
- Untamed Til Death (UTD)
- Versace Crew
- West End Boys (Winnipeg-based)
- West End Jamaicans (Edmonton)
- Westside Compadres
- Westside Crips (based out of Edmonton)
- West Side Jonsquad (Winnipeg)
- West Side Kings (Taber, Alberta)
- West Side Soldiers (Saskatchewan)
- Whiteboy Posse (based out of Edmonton, Alberta)
- White Fence
- Wolf Pack
- Wrecking Crew - A user reports that the Wrecking Crew
reside in and around winnipeg mostly in the East Kildonan
and Elmwood area on motorcycles in the bars. They are violent
and are known to be friends to the Hells Angels. They wear
shirts that say "BOW DOWN" on the back. They travel
in in large numbers and often challenge people to fights.
They are growing in numbers very fast.
- Yellowheads (Edmonton, Alberta)
- Young Bloodz (Winnipeg, North Side)
- Zig Zag Crew
Greater Toronto Area (some street and some prison)
- 187 - Large gang associated with Tamils, Guyanese, Afghans,
- 400 Crew
- 5 (Five) Point Generalz (5PGz) - recently implicated in the
boxing day shooting of Jane Creba, an alleged member who was slain
infront of a church in Rexdale. Police also suspect the March
27 murder of Romaine Lawrence, who was shot to death at a pizzeria
on Weston Rd, was related to a turf war involving the 5PGz.
- 12 Buddhas, a Vietnamese gang that has allegedly provided protection
for Asian offenders serving time, especially in the gang-ridden
Mimico Detention Centre in Toronto.
- 18 Buddahsm, which numbered 20 as of 1998.
- 18th Street - Latino gang reported in Guelph and Toronto
- AK Kannon (Toronto and Montreal)
- Alberta Nomads
- Apocalypse Crew (Scarborough)
- Ardwick Blood Crew - subject to the recent 2005 Toronto police
raids targeting attempted murder and firearms trafficking charges
- Aryan Resistance
- Asian Assassins - and Asian youth gang from Alexandra Park,
according to user-sources.
- B3 (Bad Brown Boys) (Montreal, Malvern, Scarborough, Brampton,
- The Basement (Ajax, Ontario)
- Bay Mills Crips - Glendower Crips' arch-rivals from Scarborough,
according to user-sources.
- Big Circle Boys, allegedly behind a 1998 Toronto counterfeit
credit card operation whose success centred on the gang's clever
practice of concealing the transaction on the bill of the credit-holder.
- Black Soldiers (Kitchener-Waterloo)
- Blake Street Massive
- Bleeker Crew
- Block-13 (Scarborough)
- as of 1998, a Florida Blood member was alleged to have moved
north to Toronto and become a top-ranking member in the Toronto
chapter. Police have called the US influence mere "imitation"since
the early 1990s.
- Ardwick Bloods Crew
- BTB - B-Town Bloods (Based in Brampton)
- Bloods With Attitude (BWA)
- The North Riverdale Region had, as of the late 1990s, a
gang called the Young Blood Generation, which was reported
by Toronto Police to have about 20 known members as of 1998.
- Chalkfarm Bloods
- Homicide Bloods (Roywoods)
- Jungle Posse/City Bloods (Lawrence Hieghts)
- Looney Toons
- Ortan Park Bloods (Scarborough)
- Pelham Park Bloods
- Trife Kids (Finch area)
- True Portuguese Bloods
- Willowridge (Rotten Ridge Bloods) (Etobicoke)
- Born to Kill (BTK) (a.k.a. the BTK Canal Boys or just BTK).
Born To Kill was a Vietnamese organized crime group that existed
during the late 1980's & early 1990's. They were formed in
New York City's Chinatown district.
- BTM (Born To Murder)
- BTS (Brown Terror Squad)
- Brave Heartz (BHz)
- Brockton Massives - a Toronto gang reported involved in extortion
and violence in the early 1990s. The Piru Bloods were also reported
to be active in Toronto as of the late 1990s, with a modest force
- Chalkfarm Bloods
- Chester Le crew
- Christie Boys - youth gang from the Christie Pits area of Toronto
responsible for a shooting in 1992
- As of the late 1990s, Toronto's southwest end sported the
West End Crips, while North York harboured the New Born Crips,
a force that numbered 70 in 1998, according to police. New
Born Crips were reported to operate a base in Rexdale as of
1994, where 40 members existed at the time. As of the early
2000s, some of the gang was believed to be operating in Jamestown,
known as the Jamestown Crew. Jamestown has recently also been
home to the Little Gangsta Crips. Murders that occurred in
Toronto throughout the early 2000s were at least partly attributed
to the growing Bloods-Crips rivalry in that city.
- At least 6 sets of the Crips operate in Jamestown, however,
including Mother Natures Mistakes, which numbered 40 strong
in 1998, Jamestown Crips, Mount Olive Crips, Ghetto Boys,
New Born Crips, and the Junior Crips.
- ACG (All Crips Gang, Scarlett Road area)
- Lakeshore Crips
- TGK (Trethewey Gangsta Killaz)
- Falstaff Crips
- Dem Boyz N da Hoake (Tamil gang) in Markham
- Dovercourt Boys
- Duffrin Park Boys
- East Side Thugs (EST) (Tuxedo Court)
- Esplanade Crew
- Evil Ones - a Hells Angels-affiliated biker gang
- Fieldgate Boys (Mississuaga)
- Fred Hamilton Boys, 50 strong as of 1998
- Front Page Gangsters, known in 1998
- Fuller Park Boys
- Galloway Boys, a Scarborough-based gang that was brought to
the public light following the 2004 Toronto police undercover
operation, Project Pathfinder.
Disciples - a Chicago based gang, but recently reported in
Toronto by Toronto Police in an unknown capacity
- Gators, 50 strong in 1998
- Get Mad Crew
- Ghetto Boys, a small gang known in late 1990s.
- Gilder Boys
- Glendower Crips - scarborough gang, rivals of the Bay Mills
- Satan's Choice
- Para Dice Riders
- Last Chance
- Indian Gator Association
- India Mafia - Toronto gang with mixed Tamail and Punjabi membership.
- Indo-Candian Mafia - gang with ties to Vancouver Indo-Candian
gangs as well as ties to the Toronto-area Tamil Tigers
- Jane Finch Killers, which numbered 100 in 1998
- Jane Finch Tamilz (JFT)
- Jamaican Shower Posse - a gang allegedly drawing its name from
its trademark of "showering" its victims with bullets.
In addition to Toronto, shower posse has been reported across
the US, including Boston, New York, Pennsylvannia, Miami, Houston,
Minnesota, Portland, Orgeon, and Milwaukee. Spurred on by a recent
RICO indictment operation in 1988, Jamaican Shower Posse members
were arrested in: Atlanta; Baltimore; Boston; Chicago; Cleveland;
Dallas; Denver; Detroit; Hartford, Conn.; Houston; Kansas City;
Las Vegas; Los Angeles; Martinsburg, W.Va.; Miami; New Orleans;
New York; Norfolk, Va.; Philadelphia; Raleigh, N.C.; and Washington
metropolitan area. In 1991, the chief of police of Toronto called
for a squad to deal with the Jamaican Posse. Canada's border control
has been criticized for being too relaxed with the Jamaican Posse
out of fear of attacks of racial profiling.
- Jamestown Crew - a primarily Toronto street gang affiliated
with the continental Crips and once associated with a Six Nations
gun smuggler, who supplied the Crew with US weapons. The gang
was recently subject to the May 2004 police raid dubbed Project
XXX, which resulted in the arrests of 100 people belonging to
or connected with the Jamestown Crew in Rexdale.
- JFT Gang - located in Toronto. According to users, a gang founded in the 1980s after a terroristic attack, remains unknown.
- Junior Mafia - Gang in Markham (Mccowan and Steeles) consisting
of about 15 members, involved in drug trafficking and car thefts.
- KnL (Kennedy and Lawrence)
- L.A.'s (Latino Americanos) - a Latino youth gang who was approximately
60 members strong as of 1994, and reported in the Christie Pits
area and Alexandra Park area of Toronto. At that time, however,
Toronto Police did not view the L.A.'s as a sophisticated or organized
force to deal with.
- la Cinco Tras Familia (Five Three) - West end, Lakeshore Blvd
West and Mimico Ave, in Etobicoke
- La Familia 13
- Lankan Outlawz (Mississauga, Brampton, Scarborough)
- Lansdowne Boyz
- Latin Knights
- Latin Crips
Salvatrucha 13 (MS-13)
- Lynch Mob - a small gang that allegedly briefly robbed terrorized
passengers on Toronto subways in the early 1990s.
- Malvern Crew - based out of Scarborough (specifically Neilson
Road south of Finch Avenue) and active in Toronto, allegedly a
multi-talented gang with experience in drive-bys and drug smuggling.
Juice Mob is a sub-group of the Malvern Crew.
- Mara Loca 13
- Markham Boys - According to user-sources, the Malvern Crew's
- McCormack Boys, 40 strong in 1998
- Metro Posse - an old 1989 gang known for terrorizing the subway
- Military Minds (MM)
- Money Comes First (MCF)
- Mornelle Court crew
- Mount Olive Crips
- MNE Crew (Markham & Eglinton)
- Native Syndicate - Toronto
- Native Syndicate Killers
- National Front (Skinhead group known in late 1980s)
Association (Rexdale, York Region) - reportedly began by New
- Northshore Crips
- Nosiderz - East York based gang made up of Tamils from the nearby
East York school
- NWA (Niggaz with Additude)
- One Hit Killers (645) - gang in Portunion, Scarborugh
- One Lankan Nation (OLN)
- O.B.B (Oriental Bad Boys - now Original
bad Boys) (Hamilton)
- Outlaws - a motorcycle gang recently afflicted with the powerful
2002 joint police raid against members that uprooted gang bases
in Kingston, London, Toronto, Ajax, St. Catharines, Windsor, Hamilton
- Parkdale Crew
- Persian Soliders (PS) Etobicoke, Scarborough, Toronto,
Richmond Hill. Large Persian gang, in prison and on the street.
- Point Blank Souljahs (younger generation of Regent Park Crew)
- Project Originals - a Blood-affiliated gang (according to user-sources)
reported engaging in petty theft and drugs in and around the Alexandra
Park, College Street, Euclid Avenue, Dundas Street West , and
Spadina Avenue areas in Toronto. P.O. stands for Project Originals,
who are the older gang members, while Next Generation represent
the younger ones. They have also been reported around the Atkinson
Co-op, a downtown housing project formerly known as Alexandra
Park, west of Spadina, between Dundas and Queen, according to
the Toronto Star and user sources.
- Punjabi Mafia - old Indo-Candian gang from the early and mid
1990s, reportedly involved in drugs, thefts and defrauding insurance
companies by burning vehicles and faking car accidents, according
to the Toronto Star (16 February 1995). The relationship between
the Punjabi Mafia in Canada and the Punjabi Mafia in Pakistan,
which remains a formidable presence in that country, are unknown.
- Red Devils (MC)
- Regent Park Crew
- Rollin 200'z - Crip gang operating in Malvern (Wickson Trail,
Crow Trail, B-way)
- Rude Boys - a Jamaican gang linked to narcoterrorism
- Ruff Ryderz
- Ruff Souljahz "RSZ" (Scarborough) - Based in Warden/Finch area
- Scarborough Bandits - reported in the early 1990s as "nothing
more than a group of gun-toting guttersnipes" (5 April 1993
- Seelapu (Tamil Gang)
- Silver Boys, a male Chinatown gang affiliated with the female
- Silver Springs
- Slingers (Kitchener)
- Spadina Girls - a female youth gang that recruited teenagers
from high school, directed by its 16 year-old leader, and who
saw four of its members charged by Toronto Police in 1998 after
a severe beating and $500 robbery.
- Tamil Tigers - reported in the context of organized criminal
terrorist mobilization operations in Montreal and Toronto, connected
to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
- Tivu Boys (Malvern, Toronto)
- Tivu Family
- Toronto Persian Posse - allegedly responsible for various robberies
and violence in Toronto's transit system in the early 1990s.
- Tre Deuce
- Trethewey Gangster Killers 15
- Trife Kids 60
- True Brown Thug (TBT)
- True Portuguese Bloods (a Blood
set based in Toronto's Little Portugal.)
- Tuxedo Boys or Tuxedo Rude Boys (TRB or 292 Boys) at Turf Tuxedo
Court, Scarborough, and Markham Strip.
- Tux Soulz
- Uddaptaday, possibly a Tamil-linked gang with ties to Sri Lanka.
- Untouchables - a long-ago drug-trafficking gang reported in
Toronto and New York City in the late 1970s.
- Vatos Locos (Latino gang)
- Versace Crew - mainly reported in Toronto and Scarborough, including
Kingston Penitentiary, this gang holds as key members several
second-generation Jamaican immigrants and allegedly makes quick
enemies. Police allege the Ebanks brothers were behind much of
the activities of the gang in Toronto
- VVT - reported in Toronto, Scarborough, Etobicoke, Mississauga,
Montreal, and London, England. VVT is a Tamil-associated group
that allegedly fulfills enforcement duties for the Liberation
Tigers of Tamil Eelam, the Sri Lankan terrorist group. Many VVT
members are allegedly made up of trained ex-Tamil Tigers. The
VVT's rivals are AK Kanna (named after the popular AK-47 assault
rifle), having engaged in a bloody turf war in Scarborough during
the summer of 1999. The VVTs were subject to the 2001 police and
immigration raid, Project 1050, that eventually resulted in the
deportation of dozens of Tamil members.
- a Chicago-based gang, but has a Toronto chapter allegedly founded
by Andrew Bacchus, according to the The Miami Herald (22
June 2006 ). Bacchus grew up in the Jane and Finch area of the
city, and now runs a gang-exiting program called "Breaking
the Cycle" (see
- VR Troopers
- Woodblock (Mississauga) - Crip-related gang known among user
sources for drugs, shootings, robberies.
- Young Assassins, a very small gang known in late 1990s
- YBS (Young Brown Soljaz) downtown based gang, mostly made of
Tamils and Bengalis.
- Young LankanZ - Also Known as YL. Associated with Credit Card
Frauds, Drug Trafficking. Rivals
with the Junior Mafia.
- Young Thugs
Greater Vancouver Area
- 14K Triad
- 18th Street
- Big Circle Boys
- Born To Kill
- Brown Side Thugz - Indo Canadian gang in the Surrey, BC area.
According to user sources, significant members have operated in
the drug trade, sex trade, gun smugling, kidnapping, and murder.
- Daku Killaz - according to user sources, a violent Indo-Canadian
gang located in East Vancouver, with close ties to the Independent
Soldiers. The gang has allegedly been involved in kidnapping Indo
Canadian business-men, home invasions, murder, and cross border
- Dark Cloud Bloods
do us Part (DDP)
- Dosanjh Brothers - According to users, the Dosanjh Brothers
were the first Indo Canadian gang in
Vancouver. Brothers Ron and Jimmy Dosanjh were killed in separate
hits in 1994 and 1995 in a drug turf war by former associate-turned-rival
Bindy Johal. Bindy Johal then took over the gang in the mid 1990s
until he was murdered in a Vancover night club on in Dec 20, 1998.
The deaths of such members, often revered for the respect they
attracted, continue to influence young Indo Canadian gangsters.
(for more information on Indo-Canadian gangs, see this Vancouver
- Eastside Disciples Crips (connected to 1960s-era Eastside Disciples?)
- The Elite (Richmond, B.C based Indo-Canadian hit squad)
- FBK - South Vancouver Indo-Canadian gang
- Independent Soldiers (Vancouver Indo-Canadian gang)
- Indo-Canadian Mafia
- KBC - major Filipino gang in the 1990s with membership from
60-100 (now defunct)
Ground Brotherhood (KGB)
- Krazy Cambodian Killers KCK
- L.A Boys (Latino gang)
- Los Diablos (as of 1989)
- Mara Loca (Latino gang)
- Mobtown Crew - East Indian organization in East Vancouver
- Night Crawlers
- Persian Pride (now defunct)
- Red Eagles (as of 1989)
- Red Scorpions - users report that the Red Scorpions were originaly
formed in the Young Offenders
facility in 2000 and from there continued to grow. They are muli-cultured,
as race is secondary to loyalty and respect. They have allegedly
been involved in a variety of serious crimes, and a range of international
ties. However, users say they are small in numbers (20), and most are in prison.
- Sunset Boyz - East Indian gang from Southeast Vancouver
- Surrey Jacks - Indo-Canadian gang in the Surrey area, involved
in car theft, home invasions and kidnappings, according to user
- TJ Thandi
- U.N Gang (Abbotsford, B.C based gang. U.N stands for United
Nations because of
the gangs multiracial make-up; Indo-Canadians, Asians, Persians,
- Viet Ching (also heavily reported on the US west coast, especially
Los Angeles. According to a 1999 article by Agence-Presse France,
"The two largest gangs in the United States are the Los Angeles
branch of the Viet-Ching and the Born To Kill gang of New York
city, also affiliated to the Viet-Ching." According to other
reports, Vietnamese gangs such as Viet Ching have typically leaned
more towards organized, high-tech and business crime, including
extortion and human trafficking)
- West Coast Players WCP (Black gang of pimps and drug dealers)
- WCPM - West Coast Punjabi Mafia, Indo-Canadian crime organization
with ties in California
- Ace Crew - responsible for the famous Sylvain Leduc killing
in 1995, when recently paroled John Wartley Richardson slayed
the 17 year-old for allegedly disrespecting the gang in a time
when the gang's legitimacy and street presence were both fading.
While Ace Crew activity has subsided since the late 1990s, there
are still apparently a small band of members left.
- Baycrest Crips
- Cedar Wood Crips
- Central Park Click (CPC) - reported to operate in Ottawa's Eastend (Manor
Park and Downtown), and was founded in the late 1990's.
- Combat18. (C-18) (Southwest Ontario) - originally a British terrorist organization formed in 1992, Combat-18, most commonly known as a paramilitary advocate of the neo-nazi/fascist cause, allegedly provided with funds by Skrewdriver's record label White Noise. C18 hosted the band No Remorse, which strived to be a "proper" terrorist organization at one point, according to Ryan, (2004:121). C18 leader William Browning fully intended the record label ISD Records to be 'created to fund terrorist organizations' (122). His plan was to keep the money from ISD earnings and funnel it into terrorist activities, using Denmark as a base of operations. There, bomb-maker Marcel Schift was to be handed responsibility of managing IDS Records' Scandinavian branch, with the ultimate goal of deploying a series of bombings across several European cities. The organization has been reported in cities across Canada.
- Crack Down Posse (historically) - in 1998 two CDP members shot then-21-year-old Apaid Noel with a sawed-off shutgun outside a club on Rideau Street downtown, in what the Assistant Crown attorney said was "one of the most brazen crimes imaginable." (Ottawa Citizen, January 20, 2006). A recent sentencing hearing opened new wounds for the victims, while offering a chance for the convicted to plead their case for parole eligibility in 12 years, highlighting that one of the two convicted of the murder has since removed the CDP's familiar machine-gun-tattoo as a sign that he has distanced himself from the gang world. It is unclear whether CDP members still exist in Ottawa.
- Double R - gang hailing from the West End of Ottawa. Started
as an alliance between the Ritchie and Ramsey housing units in the West
End, and has recently evolved into the Bloods.
- Eastside Mafia Crips, allegedley to have begun activity
in 2007 in the eastend of Ottawa.
- Gilder Boys - allegedly headed by Ottawa electrical engineer
Kaileshan Thanabalasingham, who later took over the leadership
of the VVT gang currently most active in Toronto, and who was
arrested in Ottawa in October of 2001. However, any Tamil linked
gangs, such as VVT, largely operate in Montreal, Toronto, and
Vancouver and any presence in Ottawa may be either transitory,
insignificant, or unknown.
- Hell's Angels - Ontario Nomads based out of Ottawa
- Ledbury Banff Crips
- Overbrook Bloods, allegedly created in 2002 in Overbrook,
a neighbourhood in the eastend of Ottawa
- Sandlewood Crips
- Triple S (South Side Souljaz) - South End gang.
- Westside 613 - users say it was created in 2006 in West Ottawa
- 18th Street (St-Leonard)
- Bloods - known as Bo-Gars in Montreal, reported to have a membership
of about 200, as of 2000, of mostly Haitian origin. The Bo-Gars
reportedly began in Montreal North in the mid-1980s. The gang
has since spread to Laval and Longeuil, and has been connected
to a host of violent and serious crime, as well as telemarketing
- Crips - known as C.D.P's (Crackdown Posse) in Montreal, reported
with a membership of about 200 in 2000, of mostly Haitian origin.
The CDP began in the early 1990s in the St. Michel district. The
turf war between CDP and the Bo-Gars has recently spread to Laval.
- Downtown Posse - A Montreal Crip gang in Cote-des-Neige, mostly
of Jamaican origin. Rivals of the Uptown Posses.
- Hells Angels
- Money Over Bitches (M.O.B ) - Bloods gang
- Montreal Italian Mafia
- Montreal West End Gang AKA the "Irish Mob" AKA the
"Westies" - according to user sources, a group of older
men who control the port of Montreal, and according to the Vancouver
Sun, a "group of anglophone criminals" running guns
and drugs (4 October 2001). The term "Westies" may have
originated from the custom of referring to South Boston's Irish-Americans
as "Southies." Montreal was the reported place of refuge
for Stephen "The Rifleman" Flemmi, an informer in the
Boston Irish Mob during the 1970s. Former Boston Irish Mob kingpin
Whitey Bulger built a strong underground network with the West
End Gang since Bulger went into hiding. The West End Gang (Irish
Mob) have been reported to work closely with the Hells Angels,
including fixing prices on cocaine for trafficking and distribution.
- MSBK - a Blood set in St. Hubert, off the Island of Montreal
- National League (Skinhead group known in late 1980s)
- N.D.G bloods
- Piru Park Boyz - a blood/piru gang with affiliation to piru's
in Compton, located in Greenfield Park, from St.constant to Longuiel. 100 to 150 members.
- Rock Machine - since absorbed by the Bandidos
- Ruff Ryders, in the West Island. Ruff Ryders began in West Island
high schools and graduated to higher level criminal activities
such as extortion and weapons trafficking. They developed alliances
with the Rockers up until 2001.
- Syndicate - according to user sources, a powerful street gang
that works for the Hell's
- T.L.R - Toronto Lankan Recruitement
- Uptown Posse - A Montreal Blood gang in Cote-des-Neige. Mostly
of Jamaican origin.
- White Boy Wrecking Crew
- Bayers Westwood Mob
- Hell's Angels
- MOB, (aka Sprytown Mob) Spryfield, Nova Scotia
- North End Dartmouth (NED), Halifax
- North Preston's Finest (Nova Scotia)
- Spry Town Mob (aka MOB), Spryfield, Nova Scotia
Gangs in Atlantic Canada have been reported incarcerated at Atlantic
Institution (maximum), Dorchester
Penitentiary, and Springhill
|Geographic Distribution of Canadian Prison Gangs, by City
source: Correctional Service Canada
According to the Winnipeg Free Press, the Manitoba Warriors
and the Indian Posse are the largest gangs in the city of Winnipeg,
and probably account for the city's 7% ownership of the country's
entire gang population. The Deuces, West End Boyz (WEB), North End
Brotherhood (NEB) and the Nine-Os are the city's other significant
gangs, but exist in much fewer numbers. The Indian Posse, known
as the Warriors' "farm team," was formed in 1990 and has
not yet matched the degree of organization the Manitoba Warriors
have achieved, but both gangs have successfully spread across rural
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Northwestern Ontario. Recent efforts
from an anti-gang task force in Winnipeg in 2001, however, won a
national law enforcement award for its work in Operation Snow, a
criminal intelligence operation that sentenced 35 Warriors to prison
on various drug and weapons charges, and allegedly reduced the Warriors
to a gang "in name only" (Winnipeg Free Press,
24 November 2001). A highlight from these take-downs included the
conviction of former Vice-President Roger Kyle Sanderson in 2000,
a Warrior kingpin who helped torture and execute Russell Krowetz,
Stefan Zurstegge and Jason Gross on Winnipeg's 319 Semple ave. At
the time, the murders were believed to be precipitated by a turf
war between the Warriors and the Hells Angels over Winnipeg's prostitution
trade (Broadcast News, 12 October 2000).
In Edmonton, Aboriginal gangs such as the Indian Posse and Redd Alert are growing so fast that competition over resources is pushing
other gangs into outlying areas across rural Alberta. In the 12,000
person jurisdiction of Hobbema, the hub of the four Native reserves
Samson, Montana, Ermineskin and Louis Bull, drug-networks are being
set up by the Indian Posse and Redd Alert. Fort McMurray, with a
population of about 60,000, is now dealing with a new organized
drug-trade, while Camrose is becoming a convenient "commuter
destination" for gangs from Edmonton. Redd Alert is quickly
winning the battle for the control of street crime in Edmonton,
Fort McMurray, Hobbema, Regina, and North Battleford, Saskatchewan.
The city of Brooks, just east of Calgary, is experiencing "skyrocketing"
gang activity, while Lethbridge, just 100 km north of the American
border, is becoming a rendezvous point for marijuana and cocaine
dealers importing and exporting to the US. Along with Lethbridge
and Medicine Hat, Brooks is also becoming known for its up-and-coming
youth gang the Kids, consisting of about twelve street kids who
sell crack cocaine. In addition to these Aboriginal and street-youth
gangs, Hells Angels-affiliates the Devil's Henchmen, Iron Steed
and Red Demons are also growing (CISA 2005).
Saskatchewan reported the highest per capita Aboriginal youth gang
membership in Canada, at 1.34 per 1,000 people. After Alberta began
transferring Manitoba Aboriginal prison gang leaders into secure
custody units in Saskatchewan, gang involvement spread to prisons
in Saskatchewan (CISS 2005). Prisons in Atlantic Canada have seen
a conglomeration of drug smugglers from past Medellin drug cartel
members, while prisons in British Columbia have seen the growing
domination of Asian gangs.
In Quebec, prisons house 272 of the nation's 278 incarcerated outlaw
biker gang members (Calgary Herald, 5 May 2006). Both the
outlaw motorcycle gangs the Hells Angels and Rock Machine have been
vying for control of Quebec's prison drug trade since 1996. Donnaconna
Penitentiary near Quebec City houses several top-ranking members
of the Hells Angels, including Hells Angels kingpin Maurice "Mom"
Boucher, who was accused of killing two prison guards, Diane Lavigne
and Pierre Rondeau, in 1997. In October of 1998, a prison guard
was convicted of smuggling cocaine and heroin from Bordeaux jail
in Montreal to the Hells Angels "wing" of Donnacona penitentiary
(Ottawa Citizen 11 July 2002 ). Jean-Paul Ramsay, a member
of the Hells Angels Montreal chapter since 1987, was recently denied
parole from a Quebec penitentiary for allegedly running drug operations
from inside prison.
Offences of Prison Gang Members
|Current Offences of Canadian Prison Gang Members, by Offence
source: Correctional Service Canada
In prison, gang members deal mostly in drugs and extortion, although
prostitution, murder, and retaliatory violence are becoming more
common. Criminal Intelligence Service Canada's Annual 2005 Report
states that "Incarcerated gang members and associates use assaults,
intimidation, and to a much lesser extent, homicide, to discipline
members/associates, to retaliate against rivals and to establish
or maintain involvement in criminal activities, like drug trafficking,
within correctional institutions." In 2004, Drumheller Institution
inmate Todd Jefferey Irving murdered Alberta Warriors inmate Roy
Eyre, allegedly in self-defence, immediately after he heard Jefferey
had marked Irving for assassination. In all cases, in the Prairies,
fights and drug trafficking are "stock-in-trade" for native
prison gangs (Calgary Herald
26 April 2004).
Not surprisingly, risk levels for gang members in prison are comparably
very high. The largest cause of this risk involves the already high
risk level of existing street gang members entering prison, but
a small part also involves the requirements attached to prison gang
membership, including threat gestures, defiance to authority, misconduct,
and even homicide as a way to protect one's turf or to preserve
one's prestige and respect. One of the most common requirements
for prison gang membership is drug trafficking, conspiracy, and
criminal abetting. See the Risk
Assessment article for more information on individual factors
that increase one's risk of reoffending.
|Risk Level of Canadian Prison Gang Members at Intake, by Selected Measures|
source: Correctional Service Canada
|Institutional Misconducts of Canadian Prison Gang Members
source: Correctional Service Canada
As stated above, certain requirements of being a gang member may
contribute to an increased incidence of staff assaults and rule
violations. In California, for example, known gang members recently
admitted to prison are asked to disclose all information about their
rank, position, duties, allegiances, fellow members, and criminal
operations to correctional staff, called by correctional officials
as "debriefing." If they deny this information, which
is frequently the case, they will temporarily be placed in a disciplinary
segregation unit before being returned to the general population.
|Reconviction Rates of Canadian Prison Gang Members, by
source: Correctional Service Canada
Aboriginal programs have recently been implemented in Prairie prisons
by the Correctional Service of Canada, in an effort to curb gang
involvement in prison and to reduce recidivism rates following release.
Surprisingly, when controlling for risk, prison gang members were
only more likely to reoffend than the general prison population
when inmate were members of Asian gangs and street gangs. Specific
types of offences, such as armed robbery, weapon offences and drug
possession, were more likely in recently released prison gang members
compared to non-prison gang members, consistent with unique patterns
of offending of each type of gang member at intake.
Criminal Intelligence Service Alberta (2005). "Annual Report."
Edmonton, Alta: Criminal Intelligence Service Alberta.
Criminal Intelligence Service Saskatchewan (2005). "Aboriginal
Based Gangs in Saskatchewan." Regina, Sask: Criminal Intelligence
Correctional Service Canada. (2002). "An Examination of Youth
and Gang Affiliation within the Federally Sentenced Aboriginal Population."
Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service Canada.
Correctional Service Canada. (2004). "A Profile and Examination
of Gang Affiliation within the Federally Sentenced Offender Population."
Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service Canada.
Correctional Service Canada. (2005). "Report of the Task Force
on Security." Ottawa: ON. Correctional Service Canada.